As we all know that heart diseases or cardiovascular diseases are causing death all over the world. If we take proper precautions or prevention steps then we would be able to save many lives. Prevention has a vital role when it comes to heart diseases. Let us discuss the topic of heart disease prevention in detail.
Secondary prevention of heart disease:
In secondary prevention of heart diseases, the main focus is on the identification of the disease before there are any symptoms so that the effect of that disease on a patient’s life can be reduced. Here we will mainly focus on two heart disease prevention measures:
- Medical interventions – Dyslipidemia which means that there is an abnormal amount of lipid in a person’s blood is considered to be one of the causes which leads to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or heart disease. In order to manage the number of lipids in the blood, statin therapy is opted by doctors. This therapy is used in both primary prevention and secondary prevention. According to statistics and studies, it can be concluded that the usage of statin therapy can lower the mortality rate by 15-20%. Hypertension is another element that causes cardiovascular disease and this can be treated by beta-blockers. Beta-blockers help in lowering the effect of adrenaline which ultimately lowers the heart rate of the patient.
- Non-medical interventions – Consist of weight reduction, dietary reduction, and light alcohol consumption. Weight reduction is the most common non-medical intervention. This is the reason why people are advised to keep their BMI between 18.5 to 24.9. Restrictions on diet are also important. A patient who is in danger because of their blood lipid, are advised to consume fruits, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, fish, and low-fat dairy. Similarly, people having high blood pressure are advised to consume the same thing but with low levels of sodium in their diet. When it comes to the consumption of alcohol, consuming light to moderate amounts of alcohol will increase the chances of mortality in people who are in danger of developing cardiovascular disease.
Tertiary prevention of heart disease:
The main object of tertiary prevention is to help the person who is suffering from a long-term disease by improving the quality of life, ability to function, and expectancy of their life. In the discussion process of heart disease prevention, we will focus on two interventions that come under tertiary prevention. These two interventions are percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary bypass grafting.
Percutaneous coronary intervention is a process that does not involve any kind of surgery. Generally, It is used to facilitate the condition of coronary arteries which gets narrowed down in patients suffering from heart disease. Stenting is combined with coronary angioplasty, it basically means that a permanent wire-meshed tube which is either drug-eluting also known as DES, or made up of bare metal which is also known as BMS is inserted. Then the stent delivery balloon is inflated and this widens up the blood vessel.
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Patients suffering from heart diseases can have their arteries blocked by plaque. Also, In this scenario, coronary artery bypass grafting can be performed. In this surgical procedure, a healthy vein or artery is taken from the patient’s body and grafted to the blocked artery. This grafted artery or vein goes around the blocked artery. This results in the supply of oxygen-rich blood through the new passage to the heart.
secondary prevention of coronary heart disease:
Patients who have survived myocardial infarction or been through revascularization procedures are the perfect candidates to go through secondary prevention of coronary heart diseases because it will improve their quality of life and reduces mortality. These heart disease prevention consists of therapeutic lifestyle changes which include management of weight, focussing on physical activity, and following a healthy diet.
Treating the condition of high blood pressure and dyslipidemia also helps in reducing the mortality rate. Studies have shown that patients who have already been through myocardial infarction. This can reduce the occurrence of cardiac events if they take aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and beta-blockers.
Prevention of Congenital heart disease:
The heart condition where a newborn baby has an abnormal heart is known as congenital heart disease. This heart abnormality can have abnormal heart walls, abnormal heart valves, and abnormal blood vessels.
In order to prevent this disease, women who are planning to get pregnant should take some heart disease prevention measures. For instance, conversing with their doctor regarding medications they are consuming. Women who have diabetes should have a controlled sugar level before they become pregnant. If some women have a family history of congenital heart disease then they should ask for genetic screening. Lastly, women should stop consuming alcohol and illegal drugs during their pregnancy.